Corrections: Minor changes, such as those which would likely occur during copyediting, typesetting or proofreading, may be made on accepted manuscripts, but will not normally be made in Versions of Record unless they impact the interpretation of the article.

If an author is found to have made an error in a published article, a Corrigendum will be used, and if the journal is found to have made an error, an Erratum will be used.

Retractions: JPPS will consider retractions in line with COPE’s Retraction Guidelines*.

Retractions are usually reserved for articles that are so seriously flawed that their findings or conclusions should not be relied upon, or that contain substantial plagiarism or life-endangering content or report unethical research.

NOTE: the list of reasons to retract in COPE’s guidelines is not exclusive. The editor may retract a publication for any reason that irreversibly undermines the article’s validity or integrity.

In exceptional cases, an article may be removed from online publication where it is deemed necessary to comply with legal obligations. This includes, without limitation, where there are concerns that the article is defamatory, violates personal privacy or confidentiality laws, is the subject of a court order, or might pose a serious health risk to the general public. In these circumstances, the article may be removed, and a notice published that clearly states why the full article has been removed.