Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal <p>ISSN: <strong>2224-8897</strong> (Online)<br>ISSN: <strong>1726-8710</strong> (Print)</p> <p>The Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society (JPPS) is the official publication of Pakistan Psychiatric Society (PPS), the pioneer representative body of psychiatrists in Pakistan.<br>This journal is dedicated to encourage and facilitate research at all levels and in all fields of Psychiatry and Mental Health.<br>We are devoted to reporting original investigations in the biomedical and health sciences relevant to the mental health including research in the basic sciences; clinical trials of therapeutic agents; effectiveness of diagnostic or therapeutic techniques; or studies relating to the behavioral, epidemiological or educational aspects of Psychiatry.</p> <p>JPPS is the only quarterly published journal in the field of Psychiatry in Pakistan with distribution amongst members of PPS both locally and globally. JPPS holds a strong position as the trailblazer in the Mental Healthcare and wellbeing sector of Pakistan, and is a prestigious medium owing to its credibility, acceptability and reach.</p> Pakistan Psychiatric Society en-US Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 1726-8710 Digitalization and Artificial Intelligence: Is it the future of mental healthcare in Pakistan? https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/164 <p>Mental health problems are increasingly being recognised as a major public health concern among the leading causes of disease burden globally. Recent report suggests that in Pakistan, over 15 million people are suffering from some form of mental illness.“Digital mental health” is defined as any application of digital health technology for mental health assessment, support, prevention, and treatment, whereas Artificial intelligence (AI) is “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines”.&nbsp;</p> Nazish Imran Imran Ijaz Haider Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01 The Relationship of Coping Strategies with Stress, Anxiety and Depression among Medical Students https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/134 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Previous studies have shown that medical students face high levels of stress, anxiety as well as depressive symptoms. Various coping strategies are used, which may be adaptive or maladaptive. Few studies in Pakistan have studied the association between emotional distress and coping methods.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong></p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between coping strategies and stress, anxiety and depression.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>In a cross-sectional study, 273 undergraduate MBBS students (years 1 to 5) were assessed for stress, anxiety and depression using DASS scale, while coping strategies were assessed using Brief-COPE scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Elevated levels of stress, anxiety and depression were found among the students. Denial, substance abuse and self-blame were positively correlated with, and predicted stress and emotional disturbance, while positive reframing was correlated with, and predicted lower level of stress and emotional disturbance. Behavioural disengagement was associated with depression.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>Our findings confirm that stress and emotional disturbance are quite frequent among medical students, and that they adopt a variety of coping methods, some of which are beneficial, others not.</p> <p>Students need to be educated about which coping methods are healthy and which ones are not. They should be helped to adopt the healthy ones with facilities such as counseling services, provision of extra-curricular activities and opportunities for healthy socialization.</p> Saeed ur Rahman Hufsa Chandni Rizwan Muhammad Ashar Waheed Khan Saad Bashir Malik Iftikhar Ahmed Minhas Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01 Stigma and Substance Use Disorder in Pakistan: A Comparison Over Drug Taking Duration https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/110 <p><strong>OBJECTIVE</strong></p> <p>The purpose of present study was to compare level of stigma over drug taking duration among male drug addicts (including mild, moderate severe and relapse) in Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>STUDY DESIGN</strong></p> <p>Cross sectional research design was used in this study</p> <p><strong>PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY</strong></p> <p>The research was conducted during the period of December, 2019 to December, 2020. The sample was collected from different drug treatment and rehabilitation centres located in Karachi, Islamabad, Peshawar, Quetta, Lahore and Faisalabad cities of Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>SUBJECTS AND METHODS</strong></p> <p>In current study, 508 male drug addicts (i.e. 125 mild, 125 moderate,132 severe and 126 relapse&nbsp; drug addicts) were selected from different drug treatment and rehabilitation centres located in major cities of Pakistan. After taking consent, Substance Abuse Self-Stigma Scale was used to collect the data.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong></p> <p>The results showed differences in stigma among mild, moderate severe and relapse male drug addicts.</p> <p><strong>KEY WORDS</strong></p> <p>Stigma, Substance Use Disorder, Mental Health&nbsp;</p> Saleem Abbas Shahid Iqbal Ali Sher Aqsa Waseem Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01 Loneliness Scale for Institutionalized Older Adults: A Preliminary Finding https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/107 <p><strong>Objective</strong>. From the time of Greek mythology to the current digital age, loneliness has been considered an integral part of human life. Such feelings of loneliness are more pronounced in older adults who have been living in old age institutions. For the purpose of assessing the phenomenon of loneliness, a culturally relevant tool was developed.</p> <p><strong>Design. </strong>Cross sectional Design</p> <p><strong>Place &amp; duration of study.</strong> The data was collected during the time period of November 2019 – January 2020 from the Old age institutes of Lahore.</p> <p><strong>Patients &amp; Methods.</strong> In the first phase of the study, 16 older adults were interviewed to generate a pool of 37 items reflecting the phenomenon of loneliness as experienced by them. All the responses were gathered and the vague items were discarded. The developed tool was then validated through experts for their significance and relevance to the target population. Further, the tool was administered on 100 older adults selected through purposive sampling within the age range of 65 to 90 years (<em>M</em>= 73.15; <em>SD</em>= 6.42). Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was also administered for concurrent validity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Exploratory factor analysis yielded three factor solution namely “Aloofness”, “Depressive Symptoms” and “Anxiety”. Results showed that the developed scale was highly consistent (α=.93). Results were further discussed in the light of cultural context.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>.&nbsp; This study has yielded a self-report measure of loneliness for institutionalized older adults with sound psychometric properties.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mishal Khan Zahid Mahmood Anila Sarwar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01 Personality Traits, Optimism and Somatic Symptom Disorder among Female University Students during Covid 19 https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/114 <p><strong>OBJECTIVE </strong></p> <p>The present research aimed at exploring relationship among personality traits, optimism and somatic symptom disorder among female university students during COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>STUDY DESIGN</strong></p> <p>Cross-sectional research design.</p> <p><strong>PLACE AND DURATION OF THE STUDY</strong></p> <p>The following research was conducted in Department of Applied Psychology, University of Management &amp; Technology, Lahore from June 2020 to 30March 2021.</p> <p><strong>SUBJECTS AND METHODS</strong></p> <p>Purposive sampling strategy was used to obtain a sample of 110 female students from different universities of Lahore using mixed mode (face to face &amp; online) of data collection.&nbsp; The 24-item Brief HEXACO Inventory, Life Orientation Test (LOT) and Patient health questionnaire used in study.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong></p> <p>Results showed that personality trait (emotionality) was found negatively significant with optimism and positively significant with somatic symptom disorder. Optimism was found to be negatively significant with somatic symptom disorder.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p> <p>The present study concluded that emotionality is positively related with somatic symptom disorder. The optimism was negatively correlated with somatic symptom disorder.</p> <p><strong>KEY WORDS</strong></p> <p>Emotionality, Optimism, Somatic symptom disorder, COVID-19</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> sitara Kanwal Bakhtawar Mir Ayesha Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01 Frustration Intolerance, Self-Efficacy and Sleep Quality in Medical Students during Pandemic of Covid-19 https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/141 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To find out the relationship between frustration intolerance, self-efficacy and sleep quality in medical students and to determine the moderating role of self-efficacy in relationship between frustration intolerance and sleep quality in Medical Students</p> <p><strong>Design: </strong>It was correlational study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration: </strong>The study was conducted for a period of 4 months from November 2020 to January 2021 from students of different medical colleges of Lahore.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> The sample comprised of 150 MBBS students from different medical, 126 (84%) were females and 24 (16%) were males. The age range of the participants was 18-26 years with mean age of 21.79 <u>+</u> 1.74 years old. Self-constructed demographic form, Frustration discomfort scale), Generalized Self efficacy Scale (Schwarzer &amp; Jerusalem, 1995) and Sleep quality scales (Yi, Shin, and Shin, 2006) were also used to assess the sample. Data were collected online by employing non-probability convenient sampling strategy.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Frustration intolerance positively related with sleep quality indicating higher frustration linked with acute sleep problems, while self-efficacy showed negative relationship with sleep quality indicating higher self-efficacy decrease the sleep problems. so, results showed that self-efficacy moderated the relationship between frustration intolerance and sleep problems in medical students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study identified high prevalence of frustration intolerance and poor sleep quality in medical students during pandemic of Covid-19, and highlighted the negative relationship of self-efficacy with frustration intolerance and sleep problems.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sumaira Ayub Muhammad Shoaib Zafar Roop Kiran Aftab Asif Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01 The Evolution of the White Coat https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/138 <p>Evolution of the White Coat</p> Tayyeb A Tahir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01 Politics and Mental Health: The ‘Goldwater Rule’ https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/147 <p>...it is for mental health professionals in particular and healthcare workers in general, to not make public pronouncements about specific people (or institutions or political processes) regarding their actual or supposed medical or psychiatric conditions and how doing so can be problematic for any number or reasons.</p> Ali Madeeh Hashmi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01 My CPSE-HSE Scholarship Journey https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/153 <p>I graduated from Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore in 2016 and in January 2018, I started my FCPS-II training in Psychiatry at Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi under the supervision of Meritorious Prof. Muhammad Iqbal Afridi.</p> Hira Bughio Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01 Monsters of Mental Health https://jpps.pk/index.php/journal/article/view/168 <p>creative corner</p> Creative Corner Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 19 01