Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society <p>ISSN: <strong>2224-8897</strong> (Online)<br>ISSN: <strong>1726-8710</strong> (Print)</p> <p>The Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society (JPPS) is the official publication of Pakistan Psychiatric Society (PPS), the pioneer representative body of psychiatrists in Pakistan.<br>This journal is dedicated to encourage and facilitate research at all levels and in all fields of Psychiatry and Mental Health.<br>We are devoted to reporting original investigations in the biomedical and health sciences relevant to the mental health including research in the basic sciences; clinical trials of therapeutic agents; effectiveness of diagnostic or therapeutic techniques; or studies relating to the behavioral, epidemiological or educational aspects of Psychiatry.</p> <p>JPPS is the only quarterly published journal in the field of Psychiatry in Pakistan with distribution amongst members of PPS both locally and globally. JPPS holds a strong position as the trailblazer in the Mental Healthcare and wellbeing sector of Pakistan, and is a prestigious medium owing to its credibility, acceptability and reach.</p> en-US (Distinguished National & Meritorious Prof. Dr M Iqbal Afridi) (Publishing Coordinator) Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:38:44 +0000 OJS 60 A BRIGHTER TOMORROW: PRIORITIZING CHILD AND ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH IN PAKISTAN <p>Children are often described as the future, but seldom are they acknowledged as the present. In a nation where over 29% of its populace falls between the ages of 15 to 29, and a staggering 64% is below 30, children are not just our future; they are our today [1]. As Pakistan's population burgeons, expected to touch 280 million by 2030, with the youth constituting about 100 million of that number, it is crucial that we invest in their mental well-being</p> Kiran Abbas, Jawed Akbar Dars Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:21:11 +0000 HELP SEEKING ATTITUDES FOR MENTAL ILLNESSES AMONG UNDER-GRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN LAHORE <p>Objective:</p> <p>The reluctance of medical students to seek help for stress is attributed to a lot of factors involving stigma, their help-seeking attitudes and psychological openness. The objective of this study is to gauge help seeking attitudes for stress and mental health issues among Pakistani medical students.</p> <p>Design:</p> <p>Two questionnaires were used to form a self-administered questionnaire, including Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-5) and Inventory of Attitudes towards Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS).</p> <p><strong><em>Place &amp; duration of study:</em></strong></p> <p>Students from King Edward Medical University, Lahore and Fatima Memorial Hospital were administered the questionnaire in physical form as well as an online version. Responses were gathered over a time of 3 months.</p> <p>Methods:</p> <p>We conducted a cross-sectional survey in two selected medical colleges in Lahore in 2022. After IRB approval and informed consent, a self-administered questionnaire which included Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-5) and Inventory of Attitudes towards Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) was utilized for data collection. Analysis was conducted with SPSS 26.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>Six hundred and forty-one undergraduate medical students participated in the study with majority being female (64.2%) and hostellers (59%). SCL- 5 scores of the participants (mean=13.36, S. D=4.95) showed moderate levels of distress among students. Participants’ mean Attitude Score on IASMHS was 53.66 (S. D=10.72). Attitudes towards help seeking were fairly negative especially with regard to feeling indifferent towards stigma (mean=18.95, S.D=5.69).&nbsp; Student’s attitudes reflected some psychological openness (mean=14.48, S.D=5.35), while propensity to seek help was slightly better (mean=20.23, S.D = 4.75). Females and clinical year students showed more positive attitudes towards help seeking as compared to males and students belonging to pre-clinical years (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>The study showed that stress among under-graduate medical students remains a significant issue. While female students and clinical years’ students portrayed better help seeking attitudes towards mental illnesses and stress, further studies including interventions to address mental illness stigma are required to improve the trend.</p> Hafsa Amin, Mahnoor Wazeer, Nazish Imran, Amna Rashid, Roop Kiran, Imran Ijaz Haider Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:22:32 +0000 EFFICACY OF INTEGRATIVE SELF-REFLECTION INTERVENTIONS ON THE SELF-COMPASSION OF ADULTS WITH SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION <p>Title: Efficacy of Integrative Self-reflection Interventions on the Self-Compassion of adults with Symptoms of Depression</p> <p>Author: Tabinda Afzal, Dr. Kiran Bashri Ahmad</p> <p>Date: 18-05-2023</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of the research was to explore the impact of an integrated approach to self-reflections by combining the interventions from Naikan Therapy and Expressive Arts therapy on adults with symptoms of depression. It was hypothesized that after the successful completion of ten bi-weekly psychotherapeutic sessions over a period of 7 weeks (including pre and post assessment), participants would have increased levels of self-compassion compared to the pre-test levels.</p> <p><strong>Research Design:</strong> The present research is a quasi-experimental research design. A total of eleven participants within the age range of 18-40 were included in the research using purposive sampling.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of the Study: </strong>1 year, at Bahria University, Karachi Campus</p> <p><strong>Participants and Methods:</strong> Only participants who were experiencing symptoms of depression, between the age range of 18-40 and at least a 12th grade education level was included in the research. In addition to the Informed Consent Form, Demographic Information Form, Siddiqui Shah Scale of Depression (Siddiqui and Shah, 1997) and Self Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003) were used to assess the level of depressive symptoms and self-compassion of the participants before and after the intervention. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 22.0 was used for analysis and a paired sample t-test was conducted to see the differences between the pretest and posttest of the participants.</p> <p><strong>Results &amp; Conclusion:</strong> Results indicated a significant increase in the levels of self-compassion from pretest (M=57, SD=6.67) to posttest (M=102, SD=10.09) conditions; t (10) = -1.45, P&lt;0.05. Integrative psychotherapies have been found to be effective in increasing awareness, improving self-awareness, improving mindfulness, and reducing self-critical thinking. Overall, these potential implications suggest that it may be an integrative form of therapy for individuals struggling with depression.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tabinda Afzal, Kiran Bashir Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:23:43 +0000 SCREEN TIME AND AGGRESSION IN ADOLESCENTS: A MODERATING ROLE OF CONTENT-BASED MEDIA EXPOSURE <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study was designed to explore the relationship between excessive screen time, content-based media exposure, and aggression in adolescents. Another important aim was to examine the moderating role of content-based media exposure between screen time and aggression. <strong>Study Design:</strong> A correlational cross-sectional research design was followed.<strong> Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Forman Christian College (A chartered University). March 2022-July 2022). <strong>Subjects and Methods: </strong>&nbsp;A convenient sample of 250 adolescents with an age range of 13 to 17 years was drawn from two public and two private schools and colleges in Lahore. The measures for data collection were the Screen-Time Addiction Questionnaire Content-Based Media Exposure Scale and The Aggression Scale are used to understand the strategic elements of how screen time shapes the world around adolescents that may lead to aggressive behaviors.<strong> Results:</strong> The results of the Pearson product-moment correlation indicated that screen time has a positive relationship with both anti-social (.32* p&lt;.05) and neutral content (.37* p&lt;.05) of media exposure. Similarly, anti-social media exposure has a significant positive relationship (56** p&lt;.01) with aggression. Violent and neutral content exposure has an inverse relationship (-.40** p&lt;.01) with each other. Anti-social media exposure proved a significant positive (β=4.32, p&lt;.05) predictor of aggression. Furthermore, media exposure significantly moderates the relationship 1.98*** p&lt;.001). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Mean scores indicated that the present population spent more time on screens watching violent, anti-social content and scored high on aggression. Adolescents who spent more time watching anti-social /violent content scored high on aggression.&nbsp; Educators, parents, and content designers should keep this thing in mind for designing online content for the public, especially for children and adolescents.</p> Saima Majeed Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:24:41 +0000 PSYCHOSOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF ACADEMIC PERFORMACE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS <p><strong>OBJECTIVE</strong></p> <p>The aim of the study was to investigate and examine the social and psychological factors which are influencing the student’s academic performance. The study focuses on opinions of undergraduate and graduate students on psychosocial factors which are influencing their academic performance.</p> <p><strong>STUDY DESIGN </strong></p> <p>The qualitative research design was used in the present research.</p> <p><strong>PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY</strong></p> <p>The present study was conducted in Lahore, Pakistan from December-September, 2020.</p> <p><strong>SUBJECTS AND METHODS</strong></p> <p>Purposive samples of 35 female university student’s age range 18-25years from Lahore College for Women University were interviewed. Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were employed as a tool for data collection. Five Focus Group Discussion (FGD) were conducted. All the collected information was than analyzed and interpreted. Thematic Analysis (TA) research was used.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong></p> <p>Results of thematic analysis showed that financial issues, mobile misuse, Teacher student relationship, Role of family, Peer group, Environment, Stress, Child parent relationship, learning issues and Distance were the most frequently occurring psychosocial determinants which were influencing the academic progress of university students.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p> <p>Based on the above-mentioned result it can be concluded that student’s educational progress is determined by psychosocial factors such as financial issues, mobile misuse, roles of family, peer group, teacher student relationship, parent child relationship, and environment, stress, distance and learning issues.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS</strong></p> <p>Psychosocial, Academic Performance, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), Thematic Analysis (TA)</p> Hira farhan, Talat Sohail Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:30:25 +0000 INCLUSION OF FLOW EXPERIENCE ACTIVITY IN TREATMENT PORTFOLIO FOR DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS- PRELIMINARY FINDINGS <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>Flow experience is an intensely engrossing pleasurable mental experience that comes from being completely absorbed in the activity the person is performing. The present study was conducted to develop flow experience as a supplementary psychological treatment intervention and to examine its efficacy when added to treatment portfolio for depressive symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong></p> <p>A 2x2 longitudinal quasi experimental design was used to test the efficacy of flow experience as intervention.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;Study was conducted in Karachi and Lahore from March 2018 to December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Patients</strong></p> <p>Participants were recruited in the research on the basis of volunteer sampling from mental health set ups of Karachi and Lahore. Twenty four (24) individuals meeting the sampling criteria consented and completed the research participation. Flow experience intervention was added in two treatment as usual (TAU) groups: TAU 1 where treatment as usual was psychiatric medication and TAU2 where treatment as usual was psychiatric medication and psychotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong></p> <p>Result shows a significant decline (t=12.12, df = 4, p&lt;.05) in depressive symptoms when flow experience activity was added in TAU2 for a duration of four weeks.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The preliminary finding shows flow experience is a promising supplementary intervention for depressive symptoms when used in addition to psychiatric medication and psychotherapy. A more generalizable application of intervention is recommended.</p> Amra Khan, Amena Zehra Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:31:50 +0000 HEALTH OF HEALTHCARE WORKERS IS THE WELL-BEING OF THE NATION <p>Physical and mental health of the people plays an important role in sustainable development. &nbsp;&nbsp;Healthy mind and safe circumstances are more important in situations where decisions and actions involving the life and death of people are taken, as in the field of medicine. Recent studies have revealed that the rate of major depression and suicidal behaviour is on the rise among healthcare workers due to stressful working conditions.</p> Ghulam Asghar Channa Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:32:50 +0000 ALL WORK AND NO PLAY MAKES JACK A DULL BOY: THE SLOGAN FOR A SPARKLING TODAY <p>Living in an era of “Parhoge lihoge banoge nawab, kheloge kudoge tau hogay khrab”(Literacy make a person a leader while sports spoils a person)it is learnt with experience that sports spoils a person’s comfort zone, opens a person up to challenges, challenging a person to meet them. A person engaged in sports is not only physically healthy but is mentally sound too. Sports mentally engage a person into positivity, distracting all physically active competitors away from conflict and negativity.</p> Mehnaz nuruddin gitey Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:33:45 +0000 HOPE <p>Given their unique life cycle, butterflies are often considered as symbols of hope and transformation. Their metamorphosis from egg to larva, then to pupa and finally an adult, symbolises personal progress and positive change. In times of hardship, they are associated with hope, as their arrival might remind people that better days are on the way. Butterflies, despite their fragility, are resilient, showing us that hope may emerge from vulnerability. Their beauty reflects the positivity that comes from accepting change. They also represent renewal and rebirth, representing a new beginning after the shedding of the old. &nbsp;In this sense, they embody the belief that hope can emerge from even the darkest of circumstances. Thus, butterflies represent the possibility of positive change and a brighter future.</p> creative Corner Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society Thu, 28 Sep 2023 11:35:28 +0000